> GtkUIManager is deprecated since GTK+ 3.10. To construct user interfaces > from XML definitions, you should use gtk.Builder, gio.MenuModel, et al. To > work with actions, use gtk.Action, GtkActionable et al. These newer classes > support richer functionality and integration with various desktop shells. > It should be possible to migrate most/all functionality from GtkUIManager.
A gtk.UIManager constructs a user interface (menus and toolbars) from one or more UI definitions, which reference actions from one or more action groups.
The UI definitions are specified in an XML format which can be roughly described by the following DTD.
> Do not confuse the GtkUIManager UI Definitions described here with > the similarly named [GtkBuilder UI Definitions][BUILDER-UI].
|[ <!ELEMENT ui (menubar|toolbar|popup|accelerator)* > <!ELEMENT menubar (menuitem|separator|placeholder|menu)* > <!ELEMENT menu (menuitem|separator|placeholder|menu)* > <!ELEMENT popup (menuitem|separator|placeholder|menu)* > <!ELEMENT toolbar (toolitem|separator|placeholder)* > <!ELEMENT placeholder (menuitem|toolitem|separator|placeholder|menu)* > <!ELEMENT menuitem EMPTY > <!ELEMENT toolitem (menu?) > <!ELEMENT separator EMPTY > <!ELEMENT accelerator EMPTY > <!ATTLIST menubar name IMPLIED action IMPLIED > <!ATTLIST toolbar name IMPLIED action IMPLIED > <!ATTLIST popup name IMPLIED action IMPLIED accelerators (true|false) IMPLIED > <!ATTLIST placeholder name IMPLIED action IMPLIED > <!ATTLIST separator name IMPLIED action IMPLIED expand (true|false) IMPLIED > <!ATTLIST menu name IMPLIED action REQUIRED position (top|bot) IMPLIED > <!ATTLIST menuitem name IMPLIED action REQUIRED position (top|bot) IMPLIED always-show-image (true|false) IMPLIED > <!ATTLIST toolitem name IMPLIED action REQUIRED position (top|bot) IMPLIED > <!ATTLIST accelerator name IMPLIED action REQUIRED >
There are some additional restrictions beyond those specified in the DTD, e.g. every toolitem must have a toolbar in its anchestry and every menuitem must have a menubar or popup in its anchestry. Since a [GMarkupParser|GMarkupParser] is used to parse the UI description, it must not only be valid XML, but valid markup. If a name is not specified, it defaults to the action. If an action is not specified either, the element name is used. The name and action attributes must not contain “/” characters after parsing (since that would mess up path lookup) and must be usable as XML attributes when enclosed in doublequotes, thus they must not “"” characters or references to the " entity. # A UI definition # |[ <ui> <menubar> <menu name="FileMenu" action="FileMenuAction"> <menuitem name="New" action="New2Action" /> <placeholder name="FileMenuAdditions" /> </menu> <menu name="JustifyMenu" action="JustifyMenuAction"> <menuitem name="Left" action="justify-left"/> <menuitem name="Centre" action="justify-center"/> <menuitem name="Right" action="justify-right"/> <menuitem name="Fill" action="justify-fill"/> </menu> </menubar> <toolbar action="toolbar1"> <placeholder name="JustifyToolItems"> <separator/> <toolitem name="Left" action="justify-left"/> <toolitem name="Centre" action="justify-center"/> <toolitem name="Right" action="justify-right"/> <toolitem name="Fill" action="justify-fill"/> <separator/> </placeholder> </toolbar> </ui>
The constructed widget hierarchy is very similar to the element tree of the XML, with the exception that placeholders are merged into their parents. The correspondence of XML elements to widgets should be almost obvious:
a toplevel gtk.Menu
a gtk.Menu attached to a menuitem
a gtk.MenuItem subclass, the exact type depends on the action
a keyboard accelerator
The “position” attribute determines where a constructed widget is positioned wrt. to its siblings in the partially constructed tree. If it is “top”, the widget is prepended, otherwise it is appended.
The most remarkable feature of gtk.UIManager is that it can overlay a set of menuitems and toolitems over another one, and demerge them later.
Merging is done based on the names of the XML elements. Each element is identified by a path which consists of the names of its anchestors, separated by slashes. For example, the menuitem named “Left” in the example above has the path /ui/menubar/JustifyMenu/Left and the toolitem with the same name has path /ui/toolbar1/JustifyToolItems/Left.
Every action has an accelerator path. Accelerators are installed together with menuitem proxies, but they can also be explicitly added with <accelerator> elements in the UI definition. This makes it possible to have accelerators for actions even if they have no visible proxies.
The separators created by gtk.UIManager are “smart”, i.e. they do not show up in the UI unless they end up between two visible menu or tool items. Separators which are located at the very beginning or end of the menu or toolbar containing them, or multiple separators next to each other, are hidden. This is a useful feature, since the merging of UI elements from multiple sources can make it hard or impossible to determine in advance whether a separator will end up in such an unfortunate position.
For separators in toolbars, you can set expand="true" to turn them from a small, visible separator to an expanding, invisible one. Toolitems following an expanding separator are effectively right-aligned.
Submenus pose similar problems to separators inconnection with merging. It is impossible to know in advance whether they will end up empty after merging. gtk.UIManager offers two ways to treat empty submenus:
- make them disappear by hiding the menu item they’re attached to
- add an insensitive “Empty” item
The behaviour is chosen based on the “hide_if_empty” property of the action to which the submenu is associated.
The GtkUIManager implementation of the GtkBuildable interface accepts GtkActionGroup objects as <child> elements in UI definitions.
A GtkUIManager UI definition as described above can be embedded in an GtkUIManager <object> element in a GtkBuilder UI definition.
The widgets that are constructed by a GtkUIManager can be embedded in other parts of the constructed user interface with the help of the “constructor” attribute. See the example below.
|[ <object class="GtkUIManager" id="uiman"> <child> <object class="GtkActionGroup" id="actiongroup"> <child> <object class="GtkAction" id="file"> <property name="label">_File</property> </object> </child> </object> </child> <ui> <menubar name="menubar1"> <menu action="file"> </menu> </menubar> </ui> </object> <object class="GtkWindow" id="main-window"> <child> <object class="GtkMenuBar" id="menubar1" constructor="uiman"/> </child> </object>
Sets our main struct and passes it to the parent class.
Creates a new ui manager object.
The ::actions-changed signal is emitted whenever the set of actions changes.
The ::add-widget signal is emitted for each generated menubar and toolbar. It is not emitted for generated popup menus, which can be obtained by gtk_ui_manager_get_widget().
The ::connect-proxy signal is emitted after connecting a proxy to an action in the group.
The ::disconnect-proxy signal is emitted after disconnecting a proxy from an action in the group.
The ::post-activate signal is emitted just after the action is activated.
The ::pre-activate signal is emitted just before the action is activated.
Adds a UI element to the current contents of manager.
Parses a file containing a [UI definition][XML-UI] and merges it with the current contents of manager.
Parses a resource file containing a [UI definition][XML-UI] and merges it with the current contents of manager.
Parses a string containing a [UI definition][XML-UI] and merges it with the current contents of manager. An enclosing <ui> element is added if it is missing.
Makes sure that all pending updates to the UI have been completed.
Returns the gtk.AccelGroup associated with manager.
Looks up an action by following a path. See gtk_ui_manager_get_widget() for more information about paths.
Returns the list of action groups associated with manager.
Returns whether menus generated by this gtk.UIManager will have tearoff menu items.
the main Gtk struct as a void*
Obtains a list of all toplevel widgets of the requested types.
Get the main Gtk struct
Creates a [UI definition][XML-UI] of the merged UI.
Looks up a widget by following a path. The path consists of the names specified in the XML description of the UI. separated by “/”. Elements which don’t have a name or action attribute in the XML (e.g. <popup>) can be addressed by their XML element name (e.g. "popup"). The root element ("/ui") can be omitted in the path.
Inserts an action group into the list of action groups associated with manager. Actions in earlier groups hide actions with the same name in later groups.
Returns an unused merge id, suitable for use with gtk_ui_manager_add_ui().
Removes an action group from the list of action groups associated with manager.
Unmerges the part of manager's content identified by merge_id.
Sets the “add_tearoffs” property, which controls whether menus generated by this gtk.UIManager will have tearoff menu items.
the main Gtk struct
the main Gtk struct
Get the main Gtk struct
the main Gtk struct as a void*
Gets a D Object from the objects table of associations.
The notify signal is emitted on an object when one of its properties has been changed. Note that getting this signal doesn't guarantee that the value of the property has actually changed, it may also be emitted when the setter for the property is called to reinstate the previous value.
Find the gobject.ParamSpec with the given name for an interface. Generally, the interface vtable passed in as g_iface will be the default vtable from g_type_default_interface_ref(), or, if you know the interface has already been loaded, g_type_default_interface_peek().
Add a property to an interface; this is only useful for interfaces that are added to GObject-derived types. Adding a property to an interface forces all objects classes with that interface to have a compatible property. The compatible property could be a newly created gobject.ParamSpec, but normally ObjectClass.overrideProperty will be used so that the object class only needs to provide an implementation and inherits the property description, default value, bounds, and so forth from the interface property.
Lists the properties of an interface.Generally, the interface vtable passed in as g_iface will be the default vtable from g_type_default_interface_ref(), or, if you know the interface has already been loaded, g_type_default_interface_peek().
Increases the reference count of the object by one and sets a callback to be called when all other references to the object are dropped, or when this is already the last reference to the object and another reference is established.
Adds a weak reference from weak_pointer to object to indicate that the pointer located at weak_pointer_location is only valid during the lifetime of object. When the object is finalized, weak_pointer will be set to NULL.
Creates a binding between source_property on source and target_property on target. Whenever the source_property is changed the target_property is updated using the same value. For instance:
Complete version of g_object_bind_property().
Creates a binding between source_property on source and target_property on target, allowing you to set the transformation functions to be used by the binding.
This is a variant of g_object_get_data() which returns a 'duplicate' of the value. dup_func defines the meaning of 'duplicate' in this context, it could e.g. take a reference on a ref-counted object.
This is a variant of g_object_get_qdata() which returns a 'duplicate' of the value. dup_func defines the meaning of 'duplicate' in this context, it could e.g. take a reference on a ref-counted object.
Increases the freeze count on object. If the freeze count is non-zero, the emission of "notify" signals on object is stopped. The signals are queued until the freeze count is decreased to zero. Duplicate notifications are squashed so that at most one notify signal is emitted for each property modified while the object is frozen.
Gets a named field from the objects table of associations (see g_object_set_data()).
Gets a property of an object.
This function gets back user data pointers stored via g_object_set_qdata().
Gets properties of an object.
Gets n_properties properties for an object. Obtained properties will be set to values. All properties must be valid. Warnings will be emitted and undefined behaviour may result if invalid properties are passed in.
Checks whether object has a floating[floating-ref] reference.
Emits a "notify" signal for the property property_name on object.
Emits a "notify" signal for the property specified by pspec on object.
Increases the reference count of object.
Increase the reference count of object, and possibly remove the floating[floating-ref] reference, if object has a floating reference.
Removes a reference added with g_object_add_toggle_ref(). The reference count of the object is decreased by one.
Removes a weak reference from object that was previously added using g_object_add_weak_pointer(). The weak_pointer_location has to match the one used with g_object_add_weak_pointer().
Compares the user data for the key key on object with oldval, and if they are the same, replaces oldval with newval.
Compares the user data for the key quark on object with oldval, and if they are the same, replaces oldval with newval.
Releases all references to other objects. This can be used to break reference cycles.
Each object carries around a table of associations from strings to pointers. This function lets you set an association.
Like g_object_set_data() except it adds notification for when the association is destroyed, either by setting it to a different value or when the object is destroyed.
Sets a property on an object.
This sets an opaque, named pointer on an object. The name is specified through a GQuark (retrived e.g. via g_quark_from_static_string()), and the pointer can be gotten back from the object with g_object_get_qdata() until the object is finalized. Setting a previously set user data pointer, overrides (frees) the old pointer set, using NULL as pointer essentially removes the data stored.
This function works like g_object_set_qdata(), but in addition, a void (*destroy) (gpointer) function may be specified which is called with data as argument when the object is finalized, or the data is being overwritten by a call to g_object_set_qdata() with the same quark.
Sets properties on an object.
Sets n_properties properties for an object. Properties to be set will be taken from values. All properties must be valid. Warnings will be emitted and undefined behaviour may result if invalid properties are passed in.
Remove a specified datum from the object's data associations, without invoking the association's destroy handler.
This function gets back user data pointers stored via g_object_set_qdata() and removes the data from object without invoking its destroy() function (if any was set). Usually, calling this function is only required to update user data pointers with a destroy notifier, for example:
Reverts the effect of a previous call to g_object_freeze_notify(). The freeze count is decreased on object and when it reaches zero, queued "notify" signals are emitted.
Decreases the reference count of object. When its reference count drops to 0, the object is finalized (i.e. its memory is freed).
This function essentially limits the life time of the closure to the life time of the object. That is, when the object is finalized, the closure is invalidated by calling Closure.invalidate on it, in order to prevent invocations of the closure with a finalized (nonexisting) object. Also, g_object_ref() and g_object_unref() are added as marshal guards to the closure, to ensure that an extra reference count is held on object during invocation of the closure. Usually, this function will be called on closures that use this object as closure data.
Adds a weak reference callback to an object. Weak references are used for notification when an object is finalized. They are called "weak references" because they allow you to safely hold a pointer to an object without calling g_object_ref() (g_object_ref() adds a strong reference, that is, forces the object to stay alive).
Removes a weak reference callback to an object.
Clears a reference to a GObject
Get the main Gtk struct
the main Gtk struct as a void*
Adds a child to buildable. type is an optional string describing how the child should be added.
Constructs a child of buildable with the name name.
This is similar to gtk_buildable_parser_finished() but is called once for each custom tag handled by the buildable.
This is called at the end of each custom element handled by the buildable.
This is called for each unknown element under <child>.
Get the internal child called childname of the buildable object.
Gets the name of the buildable object.
Sets the property name name to value on the buildable object.
Sets the name of the buildable object.